Neurons Develop Differently in Autism

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eikonabridge
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25 Jan 2019, 3:23 am

Of course, it's hard to work with brain cells. Nobody likes to provide a biopsy sample of their brain. So, researchers have looked into growing brain cells (neurons) from stem cells. Collecting stem cells from enough ASD individuals presents another challenge. So, you have to give credit to the researchers for applying a new technique to collect skin cells and turn them into pluripotent stem cells. Now, that's an ethically acceptable approach.

Neurons Develop Differently in Autism (2019-01-08)
https://www.technologynetworks.com/neuroscience/news/neurons-develop-differently-in-autism-313642
... In addition, the neurons that eventually developed from the people with ASD grew faster and had more complex branches than those from the control group. ...

Somewhat related to:

Early Brain Overgrowth in Autism Associated With an Increase in Cortical Surface Area Before Age 2 Years (2011-05-02)
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/211294
... We observed generalized cerebral cortical enlargement in individuals with ASD at both 2 and 4 to 5 years of age. ...

Or with

Study Finds That Brains With Autism Fail to Trim Synapses as They Develop (2014-08-21)
https://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/22/health/brains-of-autistic-children-have-too-many-synapses-study-suggests.html
... leaving an oversupply of synapses in at least some parts of the brain. ...

Or with

In autism, too many brain connections may be at root of condition (2017-11-02)
https://medicine.wustl.edu/news/in-autism-too-many-brain-connections-may-be-at-root-of-condition/
... This study raises the possibility that there may be too many synapses in the brains of patients with autism. ...

Anyway, the article at the top (if you trace to the original journal article) shows neurons exhibiting different growth patterns after merely 4 days. What does this mean? This means autism starts in the womb. Yet, you see people avoiding vaccines in hope of not getting autism. Huh? I guess conspiracy theorists can come up with all sorts of explanations, including that the earth is flat https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_flat_Earth_societies. And guess what happens when people avoid vaccines? That's right, measles epidemic everywhere. To the point that WHO (World Health Organization) has declared vaccine hesitancy as a major global health threat.

'Vaccine hesitancy' is on the WHO's list of 10 threats to global health in 2019
https://www.pri.org/stories/2019-01-22/vaccine-hesitancy-whos-list-10-threats-global-health-2019

Would you let your children join events where a large number of families don't get vaccinated and are prone to get each other infected with communicable diseases? Think about that.


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kraftiekortie
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25 Jan 2019, 11:00 am

Have you studied Courchesne?



eikonabridge
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26 Jan 2019, 1:27 pm

kraftiekortie wrote:
Have you studied Courchesne?

Bingo, that's it. That was one of the references I tried to google for, but did not hit the right keywords. Thanks.

Gene expression altered in postmortem autism brains
https://www.spectrumnews.org/news/gene-expression-altered-in-postmortem-autism-brains/
... Most of our neurons are born while we’re still in the womb. Excess neurons are pared away during the second and third trimester and soon after birth until babies have the final correct number. ... Courchesne says the findings suggest that the excess number of cells his group has recorded in the prefrontal cortex in people with autism is linked to both processes: cellular overgrowth and lack of proper pruning or programmed cell death. ...

The new study from skin cells points more clearly to the excess of neurites. There are many pathways to autism: excessive number of neural cells, excessive number of neural connections (synapses, dentrites, etc.), stronger connectivity, decreased pruning rate, etc. When you go one step down into genomics, the situation turns even more chaotic. Autism is polygenic: there is no such a thing as "the" autistic gene. Once you understand that, you'll see that "renormalization" (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renormalization_group) is the only valid framework to understand autism. Whenever you have renormalization, you will have "universality" phenomenon. Renormalization is all about convergence to some final "fixed points" in the configuration space, regardless of where your start points might be. So, when some people keep saying "each child is different, blah blah blah..." I can only shake my head. The difference is at the level of the location of the dewdrops (meaning focus centers), which is governed by chaos theory. It's pretty much the same as trying to predict the location of dewdrops on a leaf: you can't. But, there is no difference as to the mechanism of autism: that part is completely universal. That part simply says: dewdrops will roll down the leaf and gather around its lower points. The fact that people cannot tell the two level of concepts apart is frustrating, and that is also why they can't reach the right solutions. I have one and only one tool to solve all the problems of autism: modulation. Autism, to me, is one single problem, with one single solution. Elementary, my dear Watson.

(In renormalization it is also a given that some interactions will be suppressed: those are known as irrelevant operators, while some other interactions will be enhanced: those are known as relevant operators. So, it's no surprise that autistic children often are less verbal or social. Those should have never been the focus of attention of people: we should instead pay attention to the enhanced areas of the children: their visual-manual skills, their special interests, their stims. If you understand renormalization, you will know that for the suppressed interactions, there will be the enhanced counterparts. People are all too short-sighted to focus on the shortcomings of these children, while neglecting to develop them from their strong points. We already have an analogy from the "Second Law of Thermodynamics": the entropy in closed systems can only increase. Water will flow downstream, air will expand into empty regions. There is one single direction of propagation. The funny thing is, all the "therapeutic" approaches towards autism want to work against this direction from the "entropy law." I mean, how much nuttier can people be?!)


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