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Ganondox
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08 Jan 2012, 5:59 pm

This is for people who want fast answers to their questions, not a lengthy discussion.
I wrote the entire thing myself, but I got most of the information from threads here on the forums in threads that pop up all of the time.
Therefore, take everything written here with a grain of salt.

2E Twice Exceptional, refers to someone who has both a learning disorder (on this forum it will usually be an ASD) and is intellectually/academically gifted. This is not the same thing as Savantism.

AD Autistic Disorder, this is the proper name for the classic autism that was described by Kanner.

Affective Empathy The ability to give the proper emotional response to others emotions, this is sometimes referred to as Sympathy or just Empathy

AS Aspergers Syndrome, the milder form of Autism described by Hans Asperger.

ASD Autism Spectrum Disorder, a general term for all forms of autism, in some countries this term may be used for PDD-NOS. In the DSM-V it is proposed that all ASDs are to be merged into one disorder, with different degrees of severity.

Aspie This is someone who has Aspergers syndrome, and it is sometimes used to describe other people with mild autism who aren't diagnosed with AS. The term Aspergian is also sometimes used.

Autie This is someone with Autistic Disorder, and the term is based on the term Aspie.

ASPD Anti-social Personality Disorder, one of the four Class B (Dramatic) personality disorders, and it is the current medical term for Psychopathy and Sociopathy. Here anti-social means deliberately doing things that are detrimental to other people, and it has nothing to do with the asocial tendencies of autism.

BAP Broad Autism Phenotype, this is a label is for people who display autistic traits, but it isn't severe enough to warrant a diagnosis.

BPD Borderline Personality Disorder, one of the four Class B personality disorders. For some reason this keeps coming up here, and it seems fundamentally different than the other Class B PDs. This is not to be confused with Bipolar Disorder, which I guess is BD, but it isn't brought up nearly as much.

Cognitive Empathy The ability to deduce another persons motivations and thoughts, and sometimes it also refers to emotions.

HFA High Functioning Autism, an informal term for people with Autistic Disorder who are considered High Functioning. One of the reasons for the merge of ASDs in the DSM-V is that while HFA is the same diagnosis as LFA (in most countries), most people with HFA have more common with those with AS than those with LFA.

HPD Histrionic Personality Disorder, one of the four Class B personality disorders. This one is sometimes considered the polar opposite of AS, though all of the Class B disorders tend to be pretty far from Autism, except for maybe BPD.

LFA Low functioning autism, an informal term for more severe cases of Autistic Disorder.

Negative Symptom Something present in most people that is absent in people with the syndrome. This does not always suggest that such a symptom is a bad thing, though it usually does as not normal is usually thought of as bad for some reason.

NPD Narcissistic Personality Disorder, one of the four Class B personality disorders. Along with Psychopathy and Machiavellian personality this makes up the Dark Triad, three related personality traits that disregard other people.

NT Neurotypical, this refers to someone who is not on the Autistic Spectrum, people here often forget that just as all Aspies are different all NTs are different too, and they often forget that due to the way that the Autism spectrum is defined there is no sharp line between autistic and non-autistic. The term is also sometimes used to refer to people who are also not schizophrenic and do not have ADHD, but its roots are in reference to autism.

NVLD Nonverbal Learning Disorder, this is an often overlooked disorder where there is difficulty with nonverbal learning, which may cause social problems. Though some people with AS have this, it is by no means the same thing as AS, and its should not be assumed that aspies tend to have deficiencies in nonverbal learning.

PDD Pervasive Developmental Disorder, a group of disorders which autism is a part of. The term is sometimes used to refer to PDD-NOS.

PDD-NOS Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified, this is any disorder on the autism spectrum that does not fit any of the other ASDs to be diagnosed as one of those.

Positive Symptom Symptom that is something that most people do not have, it does not imply that the symptom is a good thing

Special Interest An obsession that an autistic person has. An autistic person can have multiple of these at once, and some of them change very frequently, generally the more narrow ones, and some last for a very long time, generally the somewhat broad ones. Special interests can be as broad as video games or zoology or as restricted as Lady Gaga's left big toe, and can be anywhere in between. The development of special interests can be seen as a pattern of autistic learning that is simply different from the normal way of gathering information, instead of skimming the surface of a broad area and slowly getting deeper an autistic person could tackle a subject by first developing a deep knowledge of narrow area and slowly expanding to the rest of the topic. I imagine it like as non-autists learn horizontally, then vertically, while autists learn vertically, then horizontally.

Spectrumite A general term for someone on the autism spectrum. The term Autist is also sometimes used.

Stimming Engaging in repetitive behaviors. Stims, properly referred to as stereotypies, are a type of tic, but they tend to be more controllable then true tics. They are believed to be used to relieve anxiety or to help focus.

ToM Theory of the Mind, another name for cognitive empathy.

Q: What is Autism?
A: Autism is a PDD characterized by social difficulties and restricted/obsessive interests or repetitive behaviors. It is present in since early childhood and is believed to be genetic in a nature, though environmental factors present in the womb are also believed to be a factor.

Q: What is the difference between Autistic Disorder and Aspergers Syndrome?
A: Aspergers has stricter criteria, where significant cognitive and language delays are not allowed, and there is less optional criteria. However, the difference is sometimes meaningless after early childhood, and it is possible that Kanner and Asperger were actually describing the same disorder and Asperger was just portraying it more positively.

Q: Is Aspergers a disability?
A: Technically yes, as one of the diagnoses criteria is clinically significant impairment. However, clinically significant is a subjective term, and some aspies manage to overcome this part after they are diagnosed. This does not mean the person is no longer autistic, it simply means they managed to figure out how to cope with it.

Q: Is Autism contagious?
A: Don't be silly, Autism is believed to be genetic and is present from birth, it's not a disease caused by a pathogen and is therefor not contagious. However, if an NT hangs around with autistic people enough they may start to act autistic, but they don't actually turn autistic, they are simply subconsciously mimicking the behaviors of those around them.

Q: Is Autism over-diagnosed?
A: Maybe, but I don't think so. Because it has no specific cause, no specific treatment, it's defined by behaviors, not all the criteria are required and some of the criteria is subjective, it isn't really misdiagnosed in the same way as some other things as it's really too loose of a term. It's really only misdiagnosed if the diagnoser is ignorant, there is a lack of information on behavior in childhood, or a more distinct disorder is responsible for the symptoms. Also, Aspergers is often diagnosed when PDD-NOS or Autistic Disorder may be a better fitting diagnosis, Yes, more people are being diagnosed now then in the past, and people are being diagnosed in the past, and people are being diagnosed now who wouldn't have been diagnosed in the past, but by the current understanding of what autism is it is actually probably under-diagnosed, especially among adults and girls.

Q: Do all people with Autism have sensory issues?
A: Sensory issues are brought up nowhere in the DSM-IV for Aspergers, though they are part of the optional criteria for ASDs in DSM-V.

Q: Do Autistic people lack imagination?
A: Just look at the amount of autistic artists. No, they do not, at least not in the traditional sense of the word. Autistic people tend to lack what is called social imagination, which is like difficulty imagining the right thing in a social situation or something. The word imagination is brought up no where in the DSM-IV entry for Aspergers, though there is some optional criteria for lack of social imagination for Autistic Disorder, and a lack of typical "imaginative" play is common in autistic children. Some of the most imaginative people in the world are autistic.

Q: Do Autistic people lack empathy?
A: In short, no, they do not. Modern research suggests that people with Aspergers tend to have lower than average cognitive empathy, but higher than average effective empathy, those these factors very from person to person as it does with all people. The issue is farther complicated by difficulty in reading social cues, unique thinking, alexthymia, and unusual/reduced displays of emotion.

Q: Are autistic people sociopaths?
A: There is absolutely no connection between ASPD and Autism, and many autistic traits are the opposite of many psychopathic traits. The only link is that the English translation of Asperger's term for the syndrome which now bares his name was "Autistic Sociopathy", but here the term is being taken completely out of context, and calling Aspies sociopaths is like calling grapefruits grapes.

Q: Do autists tend to regress cognitively?
A: No, autistic individuals tend to improve as they grow and learn more like most people. Cognitive regression of a trait of CDD (Childhood Disintegrative Disorder), where children begin developing normally, but later loose skills to the point where their condition resembles severe autism. CDD is going to be grouped under ASDs in the DSM-V, but I personally do not consider it to be autism. However, even though autistic people tend to improve cognitively, they can still end up appearing to regress and start acting more autistic. This may be caused by change, such as a change in environment, an onset of hormones, a major disturbance in routine, a drop in physical health, ect. it may be caused by picking up autistic behaviors from other autistic people, or it may occur when an autistic person burns out after trying to act NT for too long when it was really beyond their true abilities. Autistic may also act more autistic simply because they stop caring about trying to hide their autistic traits, and it is common for people to exaggerate their autistic traits when they are learning about autism.

Q: Do people with Classic Autism have low intelligence?
A: This is not an easy question to answer. Yes, most people diagnosed with Autistic Disorder tend to score lower on traditional IQ tests, the issue is not that simple. Many people with AD are nonverbal, and even those who are verbal often tend to think nonverbally, so verbal tests do not work well for them, and when they are given tests cater to their unique way of thinking they score significantly higher. In one study adults with Autistic Disorder actually scored slightly higher then average on the Raven Matrices, which are considered the most accurate test of innate intelligence. Mental retardation or other cognitive delays are not a requirement for AD, and some with it are extremely intelligent.

Q: Do people with Aspergers Syndrome have high intelligence?
A: Again, this is not an easy question to answer. The only thing that I can say is confirmed on this subject is that Aspies tend to not have low intelligence. There is no common correlation among studies of IQ in Aspies, so there is no known correlation between Aspergers and intelligence. Like all autistic people, Aspies tend to score lower on IQ tests then their actual intelligence due to there unique way of thinking, though some of the more NVLD ones score insanely high on the verbal section of IQ tests. The average IQ of Aspies may also be skewed due to the diagnose criteria making it difficult for those with mental retardation to get diagnosed with AS. Also, "NT"s with extremely high intellect tend to display several aspie traits. Even though there is no consensus on trends of general IQ in aspies, studies suggest that Aspies do have higher fluid intelligence, which is considered to be the closest thing to innate intelligence. Like everyone, intelligence varies from aspie to aspie.

Q: Do Autistic people have Savant skills?
A: Some do, but most don't. Remember, being highly intelligent and autistic is not the same thing as savantism. Some autistic people are also exceptional in small field simply because it is a special interest of theirs, not because they are a savant. Also, not all savants are autistic.

Q: Does _____ cure Autism?
A: There is no cure for Autism, and given that Autism is caused by the very neurology of a person it is unlikely there will ever be a cure, at least not one that won't have severe negative effects. However, some things may help treat some of the symptoms or possible comorbids. I am not endorsing the use of illegal drugs.

Q: Can someone with AS ___ / Do aspies _____?
A: If you meet an aspie, you met an aspie. Everyone is different, which may be even more true among autists due to a lack of a herd mentality and a blindness to social conventions. The only interest that I seem to see in common among aspies is that the vast majority of autists seem to dislike most autism researchers and the organization Autism Speaks. [sarcasm] Gee, I wonder why this connection exists? [/sarcasm]

Q: Does ____ have AS?
A: If they have a diagnosis and the existence of such a diagnosis has been revealed to the public, then yes. If not, then who knows, they might or they might not. Does it really matter? Here is a brief list of notable people with an ASD diagnosis or identify as autistic:

Q: Is (a). sociopathy, (b). ADHD, (c). schizophrenia) the opposite of Autism?
A: No. (a) While many other the traits of autism and and sociopathy are contradictory it is technically possible for someone to diagnosed with both, though it is extremely rare. (b) Actually, they have a lot in common and I've seen statistics were more than half of autistic individuals could be diagnosed with ADHD, and there is a genetic connection between the two. The only opposing thing is that AS is stereotyped as being hyper-orderly, and ADHD is stereotyped as being hyper-chaotic (c) Though in some cases the neurology between Autism and Schizophrenia is opposite (Autism having an over developed brain and Schizophrenia an underdeveloped brain or something like that), the actual symptoms of the disorders are by no means opposites. The negative symptoms of the two are nearly identical, and its the difference is in the positive symptoms (Obsessions in Autism, Psychosis in Schizophrenia). Autism was originally considered a symptom a schizophrenia. There is a theory that Psychosis, not Schizophrenia, is the opposite of Autism.

Q: Is there a correlation between AS and handedness?
A: Left handedness and ambidexterity is more more common in AS, though right handedness is still the majority. Some people seem to to think right handedness is actually more common in AS, but they might be mistaking AS for NVLD or something.

Q: Are there any physical phenotypes for Autism?
A: No, at least not in the same way as Down Syndrome or Fragile X. You can not diagnose someone based on looks. One recent study suggests that there may be a few, but they can not be easily detected with the naked eye. Many traits that are the rare in NTs occur at at least slightly higher rates among autists. According to both both Kanner and Asperger autistic people actually tend to be physically attractive, describing there appearances as "elven" or "angelic" and I tend to agree with them :) . A youthful appearance is also common among autistic people. Of course, autistic people can still be butt ugly like everyone else.

Q: Is toe walking common among autists?
A: Yes.

Q: Are aspies more inclined towards criminal activity?
A: No, many aspies are strict law followers, and due to lack of social intelligence (not general intelligence) aspies are often victims as they are easier to take advantage of. Aspies may have more problems with the police as they may flash the same cues as a criminal by accident, making them appear more suspicious, and communication problems may complicate issues with the police. Aspies may be more prone to violence as they may have difficulties understanding what is socially appropriate, have difficult settling disputes through words, or my loose control during a meltdown, but they may also be less prone to violence due to higher affective empathy and more logical thinking. The few aspies who actually are criminals may be easier to catch do to lack of social intelligence.

Q: Are aspies mean or rude?
A: Aspies may come across as mean because they may be bluntly honest, or give off the wrong social cues. They may also come across as rude due to not understanding social norms. However, aspies tend to be no more malicious than anyone else, and the opposite is often true. Aspies sometimes come across as too nice, too polite, or too formal, but still don't know the appropriate way to act in a social situation.

Q: Do aspies prefer animals to other humans?
A: Some do, preference for animals over people is definitely more common among aspies.

Q: What should I do if I believe I have Aspergers?
A: Figure out if you can claim any benefits for having a diagnosis. If so, try to see if seeking a diagnosis would be worth the costs required to see a specialist. If you are a minor you should talk to you parents/legal guardians about it, and there is probably some educational services you can claim from it that may benefit you greatly.

Q: Do people with Aspergers just not like social situations?
A: While it is true that most people with autism have less desire to socialize than most people and find social situations stressful, most want to be more social than they are, and just have difficulty socializing. Also, everyone with autism has some true problems with social interaction that's more than just anxiety.

Q: Are aspies faking it?
A: Probably not. Aspergers is a real disorder that effects many aspects of life such as nonverbal communication and sensory integration, and most desire to have less difficulties with certain aspects.

Q: Do all aspies have tics such as hand-flapping, etc?
A: While most aspies have stereotypies and it is a diagnosis criterion, it is not a strict requirement, so I assume not all aspies have tics. It also manifests differently in every person and can be anything biting the inside of ones lip and pacing to flapping hands and head-banging.

Q: Do all aspies neglect personal hygiene?
A: No.

Q: Is there a correlation between Aspergers and LGBT people?
A: Maybe. People with one neurological condition are more probable to have another. However, the possibility of a correlation does not mean that one causes the other, and it doesn't mean the majority of one is both. Most LGBT people are NT and most Aspies are not LGBT.

Q: Are you an Aspie?
A: I was professionally diagnosed with Aspergers before I even really knew what it was.

Q: Do vaccines cause autism?
A: No. This whole myth started because a mercury compound called thiomersal used to be in vaccines as a preservative, and the FDA decided to remove it. Somehow someone got the idea that this was done because apparently the mercury in vaccines caused autism, starting the myth. It's been practically proven that vaccines do not cause autism. First, studies have found absolutely no statistical connections between vaccine use and autism diagnosis, with or without thiomersal. Secondly, anyone who knows basic chemistry would know that a pure element and one of it's compounds are completely different in behavior, especially in regards to medicine. Finally, mercury and other heavy metals do not cause autism. The symptoms of autism and mercury poisoning are completely different, and there is no statistical correlation between heavy metal poisoning rates and autism diagnosis rates in regions.

That's all I have for now. If anyone thinks I should add a few terms or FAQs, please post them to this thread.



[Last update: Aug 25 2012, Cornflake]


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Last edited by Ganondox on 11 Jan 2012, 2:42 am, edited 5 times in total.

Ganondox
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08 Jan 2012, 7:52 pm

I made a small update, there is now some information on fluid intelligence in Aspies.


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08 Jan 2012, 8:01 pm

This should be stickied.


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08 Jan 2012, 8:25 pm

So you know, the majority of people who Asperger wrote about and Kanner wrote about would at this point in time be given the same diagnosis.

Kanner actually only wrote about one non-verbal person out of 12, and the rest of them, as well as all of Asperger's patients were high functioning, and in the area where there is question of whether they'd get diagnosed with classic autism or Asperger's Syndrome.

Also, describing Asperger's as the milder form has its own set of issues, but that's a mostly separate issue.



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08 Jan 2012, 8:35 pm

Those are some great explanations. Some I don't agree with but we all have our own opinion about some of the meanings.

I think non-verbal can be high functioning too. There was a boy in public school who couldn't speak at all but seemed to have enough skills to be put into mainstream education. He was actually diagnosed with apraxia.


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08 Jan 2012, 9:41 pm

Tuttle wrote:
So you know, the majority of people who Asperger wrote about and Kanner wrote about would at this point in time be given the same diagnosis.

Kanner actually only wrote about one non-verbal person out of 12, and the rest of them, as well as all of Asperger's patients were high functioning, and in the area where there is question of whether they'd get diagnosed with classic autism or Asperger's Syndrome.

Also, describing Asperger's as the milder form has its own set of issues, but that's a mostly separate issue.


Interesting. I haven't actually looked at the works of Kanner.

Yes, a case of Aspergers can be more severe than a case of Autistic Disorder, but the overall trend is that Aspergers Syndrome is milder than Autistic Disorder, and it's the fastest way to try to describe the difference, if there even is one.

Do you want me to make any changes or add anything? I probably should do "What's the difference between Autism and Aspergers", but I'm not even sure what to put so it would come out mainly factual and mainly neutral.


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08 Jan 2012, 9:45 pm

pensieve wrote:
Those are some great explanations. Some I don't agree with but we all have our own opinion about some of the meanings.

I think non-verbal can be high functioning too. There was a boy in public school who couldn't speak at all but seemed to have enough skills to be put into mainstream education. He was actually diagnosed with apraxia.


I'm trying to be neutral here, so would you mind telling me which explanations you disagree with so people can at least see them in the comments for the fact?

Regarding HFA and being nonverbal, I can't really say anything about it since HFA is not a medical term, and high functioning can be subjective. I think many people would argue that just being unable to speak would be impairing enough to make it be low functioning.


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08 Jan 2012, 9:58 pm

Ganondox wrote:
Tuttle wrote:
So you know, the majority of people who Asperger wrote about and Kanner wrote about would at this point in time be given the same diagnosis.

Kanner actually only wrote about one non-verbal person out of 12, and the rest of them, as well as all of Asperger's patients were high functioning, and in the area where there is question of whether they'd get diagnosed with classic autism or Asperger's Syndrome.

Also, describing Asperger's as the milder form has its own set of issues, but that's a mostly separate issue.


Interesting. I haven't actually looked at the works of Kanner.



I found it quite interesting to read both the works of Kanner and Asperger and mentally compare them. The difference in bias towards positive in Asperger's writing was actually notable when looked at carefully.

Quote:
Do you want me to make any changes or add anything? I probably should do "What's the difference between Autism and Aspergers", but I'm not even sure what to put so it would come out mainly factual and mainly neutral.


That question would be the only one I'd think of but I'm also not sure what to put down for it.



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09 Jan 2012, 10:23 am

Added information on DE, contagiousness, overdiagnosis, and savantism.


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09 Jan 2012, 11:14 am

Can you add a space between each definition? Looks like a giant wall of text to me, hard to read.

Also what do you mean sensory issues will be part of the criteria for ASD in DSM-V? Do you mean that if you don't have sensory issues that you will no longer meet the criterion for ASD?



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09 Jan 2012, 1:34 pm

Ganondox wrote:
DE: Double Exceptional, refers to someone who is both autistic (it may refer to other learning disorders too, but I've only seen it used with ASDs) and intellectually/academically gifted. This is not the same thing as Savantism. It is all referred to as Twice Exceptional.


I have never see Double Exceptional or DE used, including by the people who focus on this. They always use "2e" or "twice exceptional. (Googling I see Double Exceptional used once, DE never used, and the rest sending back to twice exceptional).

Also, it is absolutely used with other disabilities. It's just that we rarely discuss other disabilities on here. Dyslexic+gifted is something I've seen almost as much as autistic + gifted, its just that those of us on here who are 2e are probably autistic.

LetoAtreides82 wrote:
Also what do you mean sensory issues will be part of the criteria for ASD in DSM-V? Do you mean that if you don't have sensory issues that you will no longer meet the criterion for ASD?


You don't need to meet each criterion to meet the criteria as it is or in the DSM-5, but it is added as an option. You can have sensory issues instead of visible stims, or such and still qualify, and its being explicitly mentioned to be part of ASDs.



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09 Jan 2012, 2:00 pm

One of my pet peeves (I'm sure many will agree)

Is [insert celebrities name] autistic/Aspie?

Possibly yes, possibly not but seriously does it matter? If it does maybe put it in random discussion instead of cluttering the main forum.


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09 Jan 2012, 6:46 pm

Tuttle wrote:
Ganondox wrote:
DE: Double Exceptional, refers to someone who is both autistic (it may refer to other learning disorders too, but I've only seen it used with ASDs) and intellectually/academically gifted. This is not the same thing as Savantism. It is all referred to as Twice Exceptional.


I have never see Double Exceptional or DE used, including by the people who focus on this. They always use "2e" or "twice exceptional. (Googling I see Double Exceptional used once, DE never used, and the rest sending back to twice exceptional).

Also, it is absolutely used with other disabilities. It's just that we rarely discuss other disabilities on here. Dyslexic+gifted is something I've seen almost as much as autistic + gifted, its just that those of us on here who are 2e are probably autistic.

LetoAtreides82 wrote:
Also what do you mean sensory issues will be part of the criteria for ASD in DSM-V? Do you mean that if you don't have sensory issues that you will no longer meet the criterion for ASD?


You don't need to meet each criterion to meet the criteria as it is or in the DSM-5, but it is added as an option. You can have sensory issues instead of visible stims, or such and still qualify, and its being explicitly mentioned to be part of ASDs.


I thought I saw DE used on the forum once. Anyway, Twice Exception fixed, and celebs added.


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09 Jan 2012, 9:55 pm

Added information on the difference between AS and AD, and CDD, and I also made a few small changes.


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09 Jan 2012, 10:18 pm

I think you should include some stuff about regression and autistic burnout in the regression section. People do burn out and seemingly "regress"



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09 Jan 2012, 10:23 pm

Tuttle wrote:
I think you should include some stuff about regression and autistic burnout in the regression section. People do burn out and seemingly "regress"


Give me some more information, I know what you are talking about, but I don't know much about it.


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