Page 1 of 1 [ 15 posts ] 

DarthMetaKnight
Veteran
Veteran

User avatar

Joined: 16 Feb 2010
Gender: Male
Posts: 6,124
Location: The Infodome

09 Jul 2018, 1:38 pm

Hi all. Let's talk about antimatter. I've been watching some science videos about it lately.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ZWqQciAQlU

What could we use antimatter for? I have some ideas.

Waste Disposal: It could make our waste permanently vanish! We could also use it to erase nuclear waste, making nuclear energy a viable solution to the growing energy crisis.

Surgery: Any part of you body that you don't like can just be erased. It could be used for abortions too. "Fetus deletus!"

Cleaning Products: The Mr. Clean Magic Eraser could become an actual eraser that really erases matter.

Weapons: Regular weapons leave a body behind.

Erasers: Real erasers never get the pencil completely off and they don't work on pen.

Snow Shoveling: Just erase the snow!

Building Demolition: self-explanatory

Tattoo Removal: Why not?

Bug Zapper: An antimatter bug zapper would be the best bug zapper ever.

Got any other ideas?


_________________
Synthetic carbo-polymers got em through man. They got em through mouse. They got through, and we're gonna get out.
-Roostre

READ THIS -> https://represent.us/


QuantumChemist
Veteran
Veteran

User avatar

Joined: 18 Oct 2014
Gender: Male
Posts: 836
Location: Midwest

10 Jul 2018, 9:39 pm

OK, I will bite on this topic:

When matter and matching anti-matter "touch", they go through a process that converts them back to their original electromagnetic energy form (ie. light) in a 100% efficiency reaction . This process is called annihilation. The catch is that the particles much match in the process or the conversion is not complete. Electrons and positrons (anti-matter version of electrons) will give off 511 KeV of electromagnetic energy (high end of x-rays), while protons and neutrons that get annihilated by their anti-matter components give off energy in the gamma region. Electron neutrinos annihilating with the anti-matter version will give off two photons of blue light (can best be detected under water sources).

Particles of anti-matter have been made from pure electromagnetic energy by a reverse annihilation process. Their matter particle is also produced, so this process is called pair production. In this process, matter and anti-matter are produced at a 50%-50% ratio. Yet, out in the universe, matter is greatly favored. This is one of the big questions that physicists are trying to figure out with CERN. (For the record, I think I have that reason figured out already. Time will tell if I am correct.)

Currently, we have only made the simplest of anti-matter atoms called anti-hydrogen. That is an positron orbiting an anti-proton. The reason why we are restricted from moving to larger anti-atoms is the fact that we cannot generate and contain anti-neutrons at this point in time. Positrons and anti-protons are both charged particles that can be held with magnetic fields. Anti-neutrons do not have a net magnetic field, so you cannot contain them that way. The second they come into contact with anything that contains neutrons, they are annihilated back to gamma rays. To complicate things more, almost every particle of matter has an anti-matter component, with the exception of the Z particle (it exists as both at the same time). Again, I think I have figured out how that happens with the Z particle.

Most of the isotopes contained in radioactive wastes are much larger atoms than regular hydrogen. That means that any attempted annihilation conversion will be incomplete and rather messy to finish. In fact, the resulting process might instead set off a chain reaction in the left over nuclear waste if the wrong amount of isotopes happen to be present when certain particles get emitted. Not a good way to get rid of it if it blows up and spreads radioactivity in the process.

The high energy of the annihilation process should hint that it should not be used around unprotected body parts unless you want to cause either radioactive burns or eventual cancer.

There is already an health care use for the annihilation process. It is called PET (Positron Emission Topography) scans. In a nutshell, an isotope that generates positrons is introduced into the body and concentrates into a certain organ (usually brain tissue). It undergoes radioactive decay and produces positrons in the process. The positron almost immediately comes into contact with an electron nearby, so they undergo annihilation to produce x-rays. Two x-rays are produced per each pair annihilation event. The x-rays travel through the tissue to the outside of the body and are detected with instrumentation. It leads to a much better x-ray picture of the inner tissues because the radiation source is inside the body, not outside like a regular x-ray machine would do. The catch to this process is that it is expensive, possibly dangerous due to radiation effects and severely limits the exposure the person can have to outside radiation sources afterword for quite some time.

Oh, I forgot to mention that anti-matter happens to be the most expensive object per weight of anything on Earth if it is separated from its source and contained. One gram of it costs in the trillions of US dollars to produce:

https://www.beyondsciencetv.com/2017/11 ... ti-matter/



RetroGamer87
Veteran
Veteran

User avatar

Joined: 30 Jul 2013
Age: 31
Gender: Male
Posts: 9,243
Location: Adelaide, Australia

10 Aug 2018, 12:46 am

Can I use antimatter for weight loss?


_________________
The days are long, but the years are short


naturalplastic
Veteran
Veteran

User avatar

Joined: 26 Aug 2010
Age: 64
Gender: Male
Posts: 21,366
Location: temperate zone

11 Aug 2018, 4:58 am

That was a great summary of the topic Quantum!

Interesting.

Didn't even realize that they already DO use antimatter for something practical (PET scans).

But when are they gonna build those matter-antimatter rockets they've been talking about for decades?

Half of the fuel is hydrogen, the other half is anti hydrogen.

The two get mixed together, and they annihilate producing atomic exhaust to power your space ship at a high fraction of the speed of light so you can take a joyride to Alpha Centauri!

Its better than both nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion, because in those two forms of nuclear power less than one percent of the fuel matter is converted to pure energy. But with matter-antimatter its all of 100 percent conversion to energy!



RetroGamer87
Veteran
Veteran

User avatar

Joined: 30 Jul 2013
Age: 31
Gender: Male
Posts: 9,243
Location: Adelaide, Australia

11 Aug 2018, 6:20 am

QuantumChemist wrote:
There is already an health care use for the annihilation process. It is called PET (Positron Emission Topography) scans. In a nutshell, an isotope that generates positrons is introduced into the body and concentrates into a certain organ (usually brain tissue).

Wait, so which isotope do they use?


_________________
The days are long, but the years are short


b9
Veteran
Veteran

User avatar

Joined: 14 Aug 2008
Age: 47
Gender: Male
Posts: 12,437
Location: australia

11 Aug 2018, 10:15 am

i am not educated in this matter so forgive me if i am wrong.

when hydrogen fuses into helium (in fusion), some mass is lost.
an hydrogen atom has 1 proton and no neutrons and one electron.
an helium atom has 2 protons and 2 neutrons and 2 electrons.

in fusion, 4 hydrogen atoms fuse into 1 helium atom.

that means 4 electrons and 4 protons (protons weigh about 1/2000 less than neutrons and neutrons weigh about 1838X the mass of a neutron), fuse into 2 electrons and 2 protons and 2 electrons.

a small amount of mass is annihilated. only the mass of 1.1 electrons.

this results in an enormously powerful burst of energy due to the violation of the law of "conservation of mass"

antimatter is a whole world worse.
if one teaspoon of antimatter was introduced to a teaspoon of matter on our planet, it would blow it to smithereens.

that is what i believe



RetroGamer87
Veteran
Veteran

User avatar

Joined: 30 Jul 2013
Age: 31
Gender: Male
Posts: 9,243
Location: Adelaide, Australia

11 Aug 2018, 8:13 pm

b9 wrote:
if one teaspoon of antimatter was introduced to a teaspoon of matter on our planet, it would blow it to smithereens.
Not on the surface of our planet. It would create a massive shockwave larger than any atomic blast but it wouldn't blow our planet to pieces. Actually the shockwave might be partially self-defeating if it blows away normal matter for it to react with (slowing the explosion down until normal matter returns to the vicinity).

Even if a teaspoon of antimatter was introduced to the centre of the Earth and even if the explosion was enough to blow the earth into chunks of rocks those rocks might eventually come back together under their own gravity and reform the planet Earth (it is thought that something similar happened to Triton following a massive impact).


_________________
The days are long, but the years are short


naturalplastic
Veteran
Veteran

User avatar

Joined: 26 Aug 2010
Age: 64
Gender: Male
Posts: 21,366
Location: temperate zone

11 Aug 2018, 9:47 pm

After the lecture I asked my astronomy professor to explain the famous Einstein equation "E equals MC squared".

He asked me my body weight, and then converted it to metric, and then did the equation on the blackboard, and showed that if my body weight were converted into energy it would be "enough to supply the entire worlds electricity needs for the next 600 thousand years".

So your "teaspoon full of matter" would have the same mass as a teaspoon of matter (if it were the equivalent type of matter). Lets say its dirt. It would weigh say a third of once, or may one 8000th of my/your body mass. So that much matter (or antimatter) being totally converted to energy would be enough to power the world for only about a 1000 years. Still a lot of energy. But I doubt it would enough to split the planet. Might be equivalent to the asteroid strike that wiped out the dinosaurs though.



b9
Veteran
Veteran

User avatar

Joined: 14 Aug 2008
Age: 47
Gender: Male
Posts: 12,437
Location: australia

12 Aug 2018, 8:09 am

RetroGamer87 wrote:
b9 wrote:
if one teaspoon of antimatter was introduced to a teaspoon of matter on our planet, it would blow it to smithereens.
Not on the surface of our planet. It would create a massive shockwave larger than any atomic blast but it wouldn't blow our planet to pieces. Actually the shockwave might be partially self-defeating if it blows away normal matter for it to react with (slowing the explosion down until normal matter returns to the vicinity).

Even if a teaspoon of antimatter was introduced to the centre of the Earth and even if the explosion was enough to blow the earth into chunks of rocks those rocks might eventually come back together under their own gravity and reform the planet Earth (it is thought that something similar happened to Triton following a massive impact).



well first of all i have to correct a mistake in my previous post.

"neutrons weigh about 1838X the mass of a neutron"
i meant ""neutrons weigh about 1838X the mass of an electron"

anyway, antimatter annihilates matter and itself in an instant.
instead of fusion in a thermonuclear device which results in .00000000001 % mass loss, antimatter and matter introduction results in 100% mass loss, and so it is worlds apart.

yes i was rash in saying 1 teaspoon would blow the world to smitherines, but it would be an event of biblical proportions.



b9
Veteran
Veteran

User avatar

Joined: 14 Aug 2008
Age: 47
Gender: Male
Posts: 12,437
Location: australia

12 Aug 2018, 8:28 am

RetroGamer87 wrote:
Actually the shockwave might be partially self-defeating if it blows away normal matter for it to react with (slowing the explosion down until normal matter returns to the vicinity).


i understand what you are saying. you are saying something like if a teaspoon of antimatter was introduced into the atmosphere where the matter is rarefied, it would partially suspend it's expenditure of mass until more matter was available to be annihilated.
but the annihilation of the mass it achieves in the first instant will create a total vacuum. that will immediately be filled with more matter to finish the job.
by a total vacuum i mean an infinite vacuum.

RetroGamer87 wrote:
Even if a teaspoon of antimatter was introduced to the centre of the Earth and even if the explosion was enough to blow the earth into chunks of rocks those rocks might eventually come back together under their own gravity and reform the planet Earth (it is thought that something similar happened to Triton following a massive impact).

yes that would be the effect but it does not conform to my idea of adequate to my survival.



QuantumChemist
Veteran
Veteran

User avatar

Joined: 18 Oct 2014
Gender: Male
Posts: 836
Location: Midwest

15 Aug 2018, 9:23 am

RetroGamer87 wrote:
QuantumChemist wrote:
There is already an health care use for the annihilation process. It is called PET (Positron Emission Topography) scans. In a nutshell, an isotope that generates positrons is introduced into the body and concentrates into a certain organ (usually brain tissue).

Wait, so which isotope do they use?


Either Carbon-11 or Fluorine-18 attached to an organic ligand that targets a particular part of the cancer that they are trying to detect.

The isotope undergoes Beta+ decay to make the positron. One requirement of this process is that the isotope needs to have a lower neutron to proton ratio than what that element would normally have. Both isotopes listed above follow this rule. A proton excess leads to instability in the nucleus, which kick starts the process. One of the protons becomes converted into a neutron and a W+ boson. (I have a theory that the proton must be in an excited state, ie. absorbed energy above its ground state, before this process can begin. I say this because the amount of energy does not seem to balance on the nuclear equation, yet it must per conservation laws of the universe.) The W+ boson has a half life of approximately 3.0X10^-15 sec, so it quickly converts into a positron (anti-matter version of an electron) and an electron neutrino.



QuantumChemist
Veteran
Veteran

User avatar

Joined: 18 Oct 2014
Gender: Male
Posts: 836
Location: Midwest

15 Aug 2018, 9:40 am

naturalplastic wrote:
After the lecture I asked my astronomy professor to explain the famous Einstein equation "E equals MC squared".

He asked me my body weight, and then converted it to metric, and then did the equation on the blackboard, and showed that if my body weight were converted into energy it would be "enough to supply the entire worlds electricity needs for the next 600 thousand years".

So your "teaspoon full of matter" would have the same mass as a teaspoon of matter (if it were the equivalent type of matter). Lets say its dirt. It would weigh say a third of once, or may one 8000th of my/your body mass. So that much matter (or antimatter) being totally converted to energy would be enough to power the world for only about a 1000 years. Still a lot of energy. But I doubt it would enough to split the planet. Might be equivalent to the asteroid strike that wiped out the dinosaurs though.


It is funny that you mention this. I will be giving a lecture today on just this topic to some students training on taking notes. (Yes, I picked this topic for a reason.)

Most people know the E=mc^2 equation, but have no clue what it really means. They can define the variables (E = electromagnetic energy, m = mass (of either matter or anti-matter) and c is the speed of light), but do not seem to grasp the fact that everything (except space void) is made up of electromagnetic energy (i.e. light energy). It is from this equation that so many things in our universe can be explained. The catch is while we know that matter and anti-matter is made up of electromagnetic energy, we still do not fully know how it is done in practice. I have many theories that can possibly answer this, but they are only theoretical at this point in time.

One of my special interests is in the conversions of matter to anti-matter and back again. If one can figure out this conversion process completely, it could lead to great advances in energy production. It can also unlock great horrors if used inappropriately.



QuantumChemist
Veteran
Veteran

User avatar

Joined: 18 Oct 2014
Gender: Male
Posts: 836
Location: Midwest

15 Aug 2018, 9:46 am

One last thought before I go to my lecture on this subject:

During the annihilation process, the matter and anti-matter particles must be exactly opposite in character for this process to be a clean conversion. For example, if an electron and a position touch, the conversion is 100% and clean (i.e. no leftover matter or anti-matter). But, if a positron touches a neutron, the process can potentially go, but it will not be clean. Potentially a proton and an electron anti-neutrino would be the leftovers to this process. One of my life goals is to get a working annihilation reactor that can produce a sustained energy output. The key is in using BEC conditions for this process to work.



Mythos
Velociraptor
Velociraptor

User avatar

Joined: 12 Aug 2018
Gender: Male
Posts: 457
Location: England

16 Aug 2018, 2:09 pm

Why, for fuelling the planet express ship, of course.



RetroGamer87
Veteran
Veteran

User avatar

Joined: 30 Jul 2013
Age: 31
Gender: Male
Posts: 9,243
Location: Adelaide, Australia

17 Aug 2018, 4:48 am

Mythos wrote:
Why, for fuelling the planet express ship, of course.

No the Planet Express ship runs on dark matter.


_________________
The days are long, but the years are short