Evidence of systemic racism, implicit bias, etc.

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Mona Pereth
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15 Oct 2022, 10:32 am

Since some people here seem to be denying the existence of systemic racism, implicit bias, etc., I will use this thread to post links to evidence of same.

For starters, here's Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination by Marianne Bertrand & Sendhil Mullainathan. Abstract:

Quote:
We perform a field experiment to measure racial discrimination in the labor market. We respond with fictitious resumes to help-wanted ads in Boston and Chicago newspapers. To manipulate perception of race, each resume is assigned either a very African American sounding name or a very White sounding name. The results show significant discrimination against African-American names: White names receive 50 percent more callbacks for interviews. We also find that race affects the benefits of a better resume. For White names, a higher quality resume elicits 30 percent more callbacks whereas for African Americans, it elicits a far smaller increase. Applicants living in better neighborhoods receive more callbacks but, interestingly, this effect does not differ by race. The amount of discrimination is uniform across occupations and industries. Federal contractors and employers who list Equal Opportunity Employer' in their ad discriminate as much as other employers. We find little evidence that our results are driven by employers inferring something other than race, such as social class, from the names. These results suggest that racial discrimination is still a prominent feature of the labor market.


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Mona Pereth
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15 Oct 2022, 10:35 am

Here's ‘Walking while black’ can be dangerous too, study finds byy Fredrick Kunkle, Washington Post, October 26, 2015.

Quote:
... a recent study suggests motorists are less likely to stop for an African American pedestrian in a crosswalk. A black pedestrian’s wait time at the curb was about 32 percent longer than a white person’s. Black pedestrians were about twice as likely as white pedestrians to be passed by multiple vehicles.

The small but provocative study — conducted by researchers at Portland State University in Oregon and the University of Arizona — suggests that biases just outside people’s conscious awareness can make them less likely to yield to minority pedestrians. And that could put those pedestrians at risk, said Kimberly B. Kahn, an assistant professor of social psychology at Portland State University.

Put another way: Not only do black men have to worry about being hassled — and possibly shot — by police for simply being black, they have to worry about being run over by motorists.

[...]

Implicit bias describes the way that people may unconsciously be biased toward others based on their race, gender or some other group category even if they are not explicitly racist in their thinking.

Yet those subtle biases can emerge when people encounter a stressful situation or make split-second decisions, such as when driving. A U.S. study found that people in expensive or “high-status” vehicles were the least likely to yield to a pedestrian. An Israeli study found that drivers are more likely to yield to pedestrians in their own age group.

[...]

The effect of such subtle biases is complex. But it might cause minority pedestrians to act in ways that put themselves in danger, such as forcing the right-of-way when cars fail to stop for them, Kahn said.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, citing 10 years of data, says blacks are twice as likely to die in pedestrian accidents than whites, even when controlling for differences such as socioeconomic status and alcohol use.

“We definitely can’t say that the differences in things such as fatality rates can be explained by what we observed,” said Arlie Adkins, an assistant professor at the University of Arizona School of Landscape Architecture and Planning. But Adkins said he believes that over time and with repetition, these slights contribute to risk.

[...]

What was more striking, however, was that if the first driver failed to stop for a black pedestrian, several others blew by him, too. In fact, black pedestrians were more than twice as likely to be passed by two or more cars, compared with white pedestrians.

The researchers — Adkins, Kahn and Portland State doctoral student Tara Goddard — said their findings were consistent with research on people’s response to antisocial behavior. That is, if you see people acting badly, you’re more likely to do the same.

“I think what’s really important is first recognizing, or having some initial evidence, that drivers are treating pedestrians differently based on their race and physical appearance,” Kahn said.


More later, as I happen to come across them.


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ToughDiamond
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15 Oct 2022, 4:43 pm

Oh yes, I think a lot of people still hate black folks and immigrants as much as they ever did. I've never had much faith in the likely effectiveness of most initiatives I've seen by non-racists and governments to change it, in fact I think some of it is counter-productive.



cyberdad
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15 Oct 2022, 5:30 pm

I've been through several anti-bias/implicit bias, cultural intelligence/safety training workshops over the years. They are run in the private sector and are mandatory in government and universities.

Do they work? do they make a difference? The jury is out



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15 Oct 2022, 5:39 pm

There is some irony in that one of the author's (Sendhil) has a name whose job application would also be thrown in the shredder.

In Australia there are some employment sectors that are completely dominated Wangs and Rajans
accounting (particularly audit offices)
information technology
engineering

I read a study showing that over the last few years white students have stopped enrolling in accounting/business/IT courses because often they would be the only white student in their tutorial groups. In postgraduate degrees, particularly MBAs, white students have opted to enrol in international (usually American or British) as networking opportunities in local postgrad degrees (I think Americans call this graduate school) are limited to mostly Asian students.



Dvdz
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17 Oct 2022, 3:23 am

Mona Pereth wrote:
Since some people here seem to be denying the existence of systemic racism, implicit bias, etc., I will use this thread to post links to evidence of same.

For starters, here's Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination by Marianne Bertrand & Sendhil Mullainathan.


This study is flawed.

According to them, "The final resumes are formatted, with fonts, layout and cover letter style chosen at random." Since they didn't control these variables and also didn't quantify them, for all we know, more of the African American resumes could have been paired with a stupid font like Comic Sans, leading to the current result.



Dox47
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17 Oct 2022, 3:58 am

Mona Pereth wrote:
Since some people here seem to be denying the existence of systemic racism, implicit bias, etc., I will use this thread to post links to evidence of same.


Who is denying these things? There are certainly people here who say they're not as pervasive as claimed, myself being one of them, but I'm not aware of anyone outright denying that racism is a thing. Also, you should actually look into the IAT test for implicit bias, it is complete junk science and fell victim to the replication crisis, which hasn't stopped its use unfortunately.


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cyberdad
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17 Oct 2022, 4:29 am

Dox47 wrote:
Also, you should actually look into the IAT test for implicit bias, it is complete junk science and fell victim to the replication crisis, which hasn't stopped its use unfortunately.


The IAT is not mean't to be used as a stand alone tool. It is only mean't as an indicator not a diagnostic tool.



ilovepalmtrees
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17 Oct 2022, 11:41 am

In 2009 the ABC show "What Would You Do?" did an experiment on this. They had 3 white teen boys, all actors, vandalize and trash a car in broad daylight in a parking lot at the park. The teens did this for 3 hours and made it clear to others the car wasn't theirs. One person called 911. A few confronted them.

Then ABC replaced the white teens with black teens. Ten people called 911, and people reacted quicker. Both groups of teens were doing the exact same thing. One 911 call vs ten 911 calls.

While the white kids were vandalizing a car, there were 2 other 911 calls made to the same park. And it wasn't even about the vandalism. Nearby, there was a car parked with two black men sleeping inside. They are relatives of one of the actors and ABC purposefully set them up there. Someone called 911 because he was concerned they were "getting ready to rob somebody" and then called back again and said he is concerned because there are a lot of little kids at the park. You can't even take a nap in your own car without having the police called on you. Napping while black.



kraftiekortie
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17 Oct 2022, 1:34 pm

All of the above in the title do exist.....it's staring us in the face. It's obvious.

But I still don't really care for some of the theories pertaining to "white privilege." It's a heck of a lot more complicated than that.

I really wish there was potential for us to leave racism behind.....and establish a "new world order," if you will.

(no matter what the conspiracy theorists out there think of a "new world order").



ToughDiamond
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17 Oct 2022, 1:55 pm

Dox47 wrote:
Mona Pereth wrote:
Since some people here seem to be denying the existence of systemic racism, implicit bias, etc., I will use this thread to post links to evidence of same.


Who is denying these things? There are certainly people here who say they're not as pervasive as claimed, myself being one of them, but I'm not aware of anyone outright denying that racism is a thing. Also, you should actually look into the IAT test for implicit bias, it is complete junk science and fell victim to the replication crisis, which hasn't stopped its use unfortunately.

I agree with Dox47. People get accused of denying the existence of racial discrimination rather glibly. When I did a search for "how to stop racism" and "causes of racism" I saw a lot about the "problem of colour-blindness" which, if I understand their idea correctly, says that a person who claims to be non-racist themselves is nonetheless a racist or part of the problem, however true their claim of personal colour-blindness may be, because (they say) such people are denying the very existence of racism.

https://fitchburgstate.libguides.com/c. ... &p=7616506

According to them:

What Does Color Racial Colorblindness Look Like?
I don't see color. I just see people.
We're all just people.
I don't care if you're black, white, green, or purple-polka-dotted!
#AllLivesMatter


I see the most merit in the 4th one, because that one points to the misconstruing of the "Black Lives Matter" slogan which is commonly assumed to mean that white lives don't matter (maybe if it had been coined as "Black Lives Also Matter" then it would have been clearer). As for the other 3, apart from the fact that not everybody who says them is telling the truth, I don't think they have any diagnostic power at all, if they're simply uttered as an honest defense against accusations of a personal racist mindset.



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17 Oct 2022, 2:02 pm

Honestly I didn't know systemic racism was a thing or implicit bias until the Goerge Floyd incident. Then racism became a hot topic and I finally learned. This is what they call white privilege. I didn't notice it because of my privilege and my school never taught this stuff. I didn't even know it existed so how could I have educated myself on something if I don't even know it exists?
Plus I grew up in an area where most people are white and there are not many black people so of course I wouldn't have seen racism growing up. I didn't live in a black neighborhood either like my husband did so he knew this already existed and plus he liked history.


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cyberdad
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17 Oct 2022, 3:39 pm

League_Girl wrote:
Honestly I didn't know systemic racism was a thing or implicit bias until the Goerge Floyd incident. Then racism became a hot topic and I finally learned. This is what they call white privilege. I didn't notice it because of my privilege and my school never taught this stuff. I didn't even know it existed so how could I have educated myself on something if I don't even know it exists?
Plus I grew up in an area where most people are white and there are not many black people so of course I wouldn't have seen racism growing up. I didn't live in a black neighborhood either like my husband did so he knew this already existed and plus he liked history.


Implicit bias is carried by most people (regardless of uninformed comments about the IAT). It's a slippery slope, if you carry bias about Group A then it's easier to make that quantum leap to make similar dismissal of Group B.
You prime the brain to make it easier to believe certain things when you are susceptible to confirmation bias about other beliefs.



demeus
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17 Oct 2022, 3:41 pm

Personally, I would like to see if employers use zip codes to determine who to interview and not interview. Especially in larger cities where it is easier to determine race/economic status based on zip code.



kraftiekortie
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17 Oct 2022, 5:02 pm

It’s actually getting harder to determine who lives somewhere based on zip code within NYC.



League_Girl
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17 Oct 2022, 5:24 pm

cyberdad wrote:
League_Girl wrote:
Honestly I didn't know systemic racism was a thing or implicit bias until the Goerge Floyd incident. Then racism became a hot topic and I finally learned. This is what they call white privilege. I didn't notice it because of my privilege and my school never taught this stuff. I didn't even know it existed so how could I have educated myself on something if I don't even know it exists?
Plus I grew up in an area where most people are white and there are not many black people so of course I wouldn't have seen racism growing up. I didn't live in a black neighborhood either like my husband did so he knew this already existed and plus he liked history.


Implicit bias is carried by most people (regardless of uninformed comments about the IAT). It's a slippery slope, if you carry bias about Group A then it's easier to make that quantum leap to make similar dismissal of Group B.
You prime the brain to make it easier to believe certain things when you are susceptible to confirmation bias about other beliefs.


People have indeed have had implicit bias against me despite the fact I am white because they would give me different treatment and act like I am some sort of evil villain but not bat an eye when others do the same I am doing but when I am doing it, I have committed a crime. I dealt with this as a kid too. I was frustrated about it too growing up and I have dealt with it on this forum too.


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